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Kyasarin [userpic]
Hisashiburi.....; informal endings, polite and plain style, use of 'kedo' [but, however]
by Kyasarin (kannas_mirror)
at October 6th, 2007 (10:56 pm)
tired

current mood: tired

As I am currently taking a gap year from my university course and am continuing to study Intermediate Japanese whilst I am away (and without a teacher), I am taking a lot of notes to help progress my learning and understanding. I am unsure how helpful this will be to anyone as these are personal notes, but they may not be completely suitable for absolute beginners as they do require at least some basic knowledge of grammar. However, I'm going to start posting in this way, and with other things whilst I study alone this year and I hope they are of some use. I will tag them for easy future reference too. Please leave a comment if you have any questions or are confused, or if it does help you at all. Again, these are copied directly from my notes, so I hope there's no confusion (^-^ );
I will be using kanji where I can, but I will also include furigana and romaji in some places.

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Informal endings - の [no] after a verb


This usage requires informal -u form, never the formal -masu form. Negative verbs, however, are fine.

EXAMPLES:

明日こないの?あしたこないの?Ashita konai no?  Won't you come tomorrow?
どうしたの?Doushita no?  What's wrong?

o  usage of ' の' at the end of a sentence can also indicate explanation or emotive emphasis, or a question;
どうするの?  How about you? (What did you do?)

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けど  - but, however

ーCan be interchangeable with が [ga]
ーComes at the end of a main clause
ーAlternative forms - けれども  keredomo 、 けども kedomo  、 けれど keredo

It has the same function as ' が' , which is used to connect sentences. It is often used in conversations.

そのカレーライス 「は」 おいしいです?
Sono kare raisu [wa] oishii desu?
Is that curry and rice tasty?
。。。うん、からいけど、おいしい。
...un, karai kedo, oishii.
Yes, it's hot, but tasty.

すもうのチケット 「が」 あるけどいっしょにいかない?
Sumou no tiketto [ga] aru kedo isshoni ikanai?
I have tickets for sumo. Won't you come with me?
いいね.
Ii ne.
Sure, sounds good, etc.

[More about particle omission next time!]

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Polite and Plain Style

POLITE STYLE
- Anytime, any place, anybody!

o  in common use between adults who are not close friends
o  meeting for the first time; to one's superiors
o younger or lower in rank

PLAIN STYLE - Close friends, colleagues, family members

o  Written work - newspapers, books, theses, diaries. HOWEVER, letters are usually written in the polite style.

IF UNSURE OF THE SITUATION, IT IS ALWAYS SAFER TO BE POLITE! ^__^

POLITE
<            >
PLAIN
1 すもうが好きです
すもうがすきです
sumou ga suki desu
BECOMES好きだ
すもうがすき
sumou ga suki da
2 あした東京へ行きます
あしたときょうへいきます
ashita tokyo e ikimasu
BECOMESあした東京へ行く
あしたときょうへいく
ashita tokyo e iku
3 富士山にのぼりたいです
ふじさんにのぼりたいです
Fuji-san ni noboritai desu
BECOMES富士山にのぼりたい
ふじさんにのぼりたい
Fuji-san ni noboritai
4 ドイツへ行ったことがありません
ドイツへいったことがありません
Doitsu e itta koto ga arimasen
BECOMESドイツへ行ったことがない
ドイツへいったことがない
Doitsu e itta koto ga nai
5 毎日いそがしいです
まいにちいそがしいです
mai nichi isogashii desu
BECOMES
毎日いそがしい
まいにちいそがしい
mai nichi isogashii





















English Translation
1 I like sumo
2 Tomorrow I will go to Tokyo
3 I want to climb at Mount Fuji (notice that 'ni' is used)
4 I haven't been to Germany
5 I'm busy every day


I shall add some more tomorrow about plain style conversation, particle omission and conversation examples ^_^~ Please drop me a note if this is at all helpful to your understanding, or if there are any glaring mistakes.

-キャサリン ★ ☆ ★